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Bargello View from Uffizi Firenze

Museo Nazionale del Bargello Florence – View from Uffizi Gallery

On an early spring day in 1475, a young girl sat on a stool in the workshop of the Italian master, Andrea del Verrocchio.  A fresh bouquet of wildflowers had been given to her just before she sat in the master’s studio.

Born Andrea di Michele di Francesco de’ Cioni, Verrocchio was well known in the halls of Medici power in Florence during the early Renaissance. His study of this particular young girl rests on a stand in what is now called the Sale Verrocchio  – a small second floor gallery in the Bargello Museum in Florence.

The question that, even today, occupies the minds of many art critics and historians about Verrochio’s bust of that Tuscan girl is “Who created the bust of Dama col Mazzolino?”

Museo del Bargello, in the heart of Florence’s Medieval city center, seems an austere and perplexing location for yet another extraordinary collection of art. This was the seat of the Podesta, the Chief magistrate of the city for centuries and the place of execution for nearly an equal number of years.  Bargello’s imposing crenelated tower, which competes in scale with its nearby neighbor the Badia Fiorentina (Abbey of Florence),  pierces the skyline of the city.

To climb the long exterior staircase of the courtyard is to literally rise above Michelangelo (a collection of Buonarotti’s works occupies the ground floor gallery) and arrive in the the midst of invaluable art patronage: Donatello’s David, the gallery of the Della Robbia workshops, and much more.

DSC_4210

Main Stairway Bargello Florence

Many visitors to the Bargello are, by the time they arrive at the Sale Verrocchio (The Verrocchio Room), too tired to pay much attention to the beauty of the works contained therein. The late afternoon sun shimmers through the wave-aged windows as noise rises from the streets below and on top of fatigue, the heat often erodes interest. My advice? Take a break and study, in particular, this singular cinnamon-hued marble masterpiece.

Dama col Mazzolino

Dama col Mazzolino

Now, the mystery.

One of Verrocchio’s students was a young man from the village of Vinci, one Leonardo. Verrocchio also worked with Perugino, Botticelli and Ghirlandaio – an incredible collection of the best artists of the day.

As art historians have studied the young woman, a number of experts began to doubt that only Verrocchio, and perhaps not Verrocchio at all, carved the bust. On several of Leonardo’s works there is a nearly identical style to the hands he painted.

Here are some examples, next to the Damma Col Mazzolino.

Verrochio Hands

Damma Col Mazzolino
Hand Study
Verrocchio 1475

Lady With An Ermine Da Vincie 1489-1490

Hands-Lady with an Ermine-DaVinci 1490

Note the striking similarity in the position of the hands. The elongated stretch of the fingers are nearly identical. One additional remarkable note about the resemblance of Da Vinci and Verrocchio’s work are from Da Vinci’s most famous fresco, Il Cenacolo, the Last Supper in the refectory of Santa Maria della Grazie Convent in Milan.

During a recent visit to that Convent, I noticed the hands of St. Phillip, who stands three disciples to the left of Christ in Da Vinci’s fresco.

Última_Cena_-_Da_Vinci_5

Hands of Phillipus
Il Cenocolo, Da Vinci

Note, again, the nearly identical position of the saint’s right hand in this fresco to the hands in the works detailed above. Was it simply coincidence that these similarities exist? Many art historians and critics believe that if Leonard did not actually carve the hands (at a minimum) on the young girl holding flowers, Verrocchio’s influence on Da Vinci’s style was both remarkable and deep.

Such, perhaps, is the ‘science’ of art. While technologically advanced equipment can assess the age and condition of works of men and women, the true gift of the artist is in the mystery of their vision. Whether you agree with the discourse on these works of art, I believe those who take the time to study them will come to more deeply understand the effect of the Florentine masters, and their studios, on their students.

My vision, when I study the young Tuscan girl in that small gallery in Florence, is of a young Leonardo, fired by talent and desire, absorbing and learning from every mark of his master’s chisel, every stroke of paint on canvas. Da Vinci’s contemporaries, like Perugino and Ghirlandaio, were at hand to watch, sketch and stare in wonder at the creative energy so perfectly expressed by their teacher. Each of Verrocchio’s pupils learned to create their own work, while paying homage to the genius of the man who taught them.

I will conclude this post with two images. One by Verrocchio, discussed in this blog, and the other by one of Verrocchio’s students.

Yet another opportunity to compare and consider the comparative work of masters: Verrocchio and . . ?

AII58286Girl - by Verrocchio Studen

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MILAN – DO I GO?

I’ve mixed feeling about visiting Milan. After ten visits to Da Vinci’s Last Supper at Santa Maria della Grazie I’m not enthusiastic about all the insanity you have to go through to see, next to Michelangelo’s David in Florence, the most visited work of Renaissance art in the world. Truth is, its frustrating. Large tour companies book entire months as much as a year in advance. They do, essentially, control any/all ticket sales. Any individual tickets that become available are almost entirely based on cancellations made by the tour companies.

Recently, tickets were not available ten (yes, ten) months in advance of one of my small group tours. If you wish to make reservations with Viator, or other large tour companies in Milan, to see the city by bus – and they do offer very good tours that way – then that’s the way to go.

If you wish to give it a try, link here to see if tickets for your desired date are available.

Despite the challenges presented by a visit to the Da Vinci, this very modern Italian city offers many other delights. Read on.

The Duomo (Cathedral) of Milan

The Duomo: What a confection of white marble! Spectacular. The Piazza that fronts the cathedral of Milan is one of the largest in Italy. The scale of the structure dwarfs even that huge space.

Inside the cathedral are stained glass windows, behind the main altar, designed by Marc Chagall. These windows were installed after the bombings of WWII.

Marco d’ Agrate’s
Saint Bartholomew
1562

Marco d’ Agrate’s 1562 sculpture of Saint Bartholomew is one of the most unusual in Europe. The saint was flayed alive (that is, skinned alive) so the sculptor chose to depict Bartholomew’s musculature exposed, his skin wrapped around his body. Fascinating and disturbing, at best.

If you wish to visit the roof of the duomo – and I highly recommend you do – go to the southeast corner of the church where you will find the elevator to the roof. The number and beauty of the statues and gargoyles is mind-boggling.

The Galleria Vittorio Emanuele and loggia walkways around the Piazza Duomo.

Next to the Cathedral of Milan is the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. Completed in 1877 it is the first covered ‘mall’ in Europe.

Today, fashionistas rub elbows with tourists in the many cafes within. Impeccably dressed Milanese move effortlessly in and out of gorgeous, expensive clothing and jewelry shops. The mosaic and inlaid floors are, in and of themselves, a wonder to behold.

At the center crossing of the galleria floor are mosaic coats of arms of the four major cities of Italy. Turin, west and south of Milan, uses a bull as its symbol. Tradition has it that, if you place your foot on the bulls, ahem, private parts and spin 360 degrees without your other foot touching the floor, you will have good luck. It is really fun to watch people try this from an unobtrusive corner. And yes I’ve tried several times, all to no avail!

If the deep depression in the floor above the unfortunate animal’s lover-section is any indication, a great many tourists and locals believe in the tradition!

La Scala and the Piazza della Scala

At the north entrance to the Galleria is the Piazza della Scala which fronts the world famous Opera House of the same name. This is a lovely park area in the center of Milan. There are benches for a much needed break and people watching, a national sport in Italy, is always fascinating.

For those obsessed with, or just interested in, opera, a visit to La Scala offers interesting glimpses in to the world of music. There is a small museum inside the building and visitors are also afforded the opportunity to view the interior of the theater from one of the third level private boxes. This is certainly not any waste of time; if anything, the visit underscores Italian’s love of music and their dedication to the opera composer’s art.

Via Montenapoleone:

If your interests tend to the current trends in clothing design, then this is your street. Known as the headquarters of  Italian fashion, the boutiques for shopping, and the people watching, offer fascinating glimpses into the world of “La Moda.” This wide, truly monumental, boulevard shares its justifiable reputation with the Fifth Avenue in New York and the Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré in Paris.

This is one of the most expensive commercial / residential areas of Milan. Be aware that costs for meals and beverages are at least one and a half times the average cost for such things in other areas of the city.

Fortezza Sforzesco

In the heart of Milan stands one of the most historically intriguing and architecturally powerful buildings in the world. From 1392, when the Visconti family began improving and strengthening the fortifications, to the time of Francesco Sforza who transformed the buildings into his private ducal residence, this is a building whose construction reflects the political history of Italy.

You can visit the fortress in about two hours. There are several spaces within the structure now used for art and fashion shows, so it is very helpful to check the site’s web resources before you visit. See information below under “If You Go.” A MUST even if you find history boring. This is one place  guaranteed to fascinate.

 . . . and finally, the Navigli Neighborhood

Surprisingly enough, there is an area of Milan that is crisscrossed by navigable canals. Southeast of city center, and easily reached by using the Green Line of the Milan subway system (watch your personal belongings!), you will exit at the Porta Genova train station. As you exit the station you are in the heart of Milan’s answer to Venice. If you go in the winter months, don’t be surprised by maintenance work and dry canals.

This is one of the liveliest arts districts of Milan. Evenings are always crowded with all ages, some heading to clubs, others to galleries that tend to the newest Italian talents. Enjoyable, fun and truly memorable.

IF YOU GO:

Milan’s Stazione Centrale is one of the largest train stations in Europe. Connections to all cities across Italy are available, from regional trains to the fast Eurostar Italia. There is a huge subway station under the station and access to all areas of the city are easy. There are kiosks throughout the station that facilitate the purchase of tickets. The kiosks have touch-screens and offer numerous language options for the simple step-by-step purchase process.

NOTE: Be very careful with your personal belongings while in the Metro stations and trains in Milan. Pickpockets are plentiful and determined.

The Last Supper – Leonardo Da Vinci

Santa Maria della Grazie

Piazza Santa Maria delle Grazie, 2

20123 Milan, Italy

Tel: +39.02.467.6111

Remember that you cannot just show up at the entrance for the Last Supper and expect to enter. Pre reserved reservations are mandatory.

Tickets? Try Last Supper Tickets

Duomo:

Hours: Every day: 7:00 a.m. – 7:00 p.m. Last admission at 6:45 p.m. Free admission.

For detailed history and information about the cathedral:

Duomo Milan

La Scala Opera House:

Tickets: Euro 6.00 per person, From 9 am to 12.30 pm (last entrance at 12 noon) and from 1.30 pm to 5.30 pm (last entrance at 5 pm)

(NOTE: Visits are closed from 12:30PM to 1:30PM)
The museum is open everyday except: 7 December, afternoon of 24 December, 25 and 26 December, 31 December afternoon, 1 January, Easter Sunday, 1 May, 15 August.

La Scala Information

Fortezza Sforseco

Hours: Open daily
7.00 a.m. – 6.00 p.m. (in winter) | 7.00 a.m. – 7.00 p.m. (in summer)
Free admission (except for castle museums)
Public transport:
Underground: MM1 Cadorna, Cairoli – MM2 Cadorna, Lanza
Buses: 18,50,37,58,61,94

Castle Museums: Entrance ticket Euro 3.00

For more information and to check event schedules at the fortress:

Fortessa Sforzesco

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